The Sons of Jacob were the conspiratorial group that orchestrated the rise of the Republic of Gilead.
The Sons of Jacob that founded Gilead were essentially a junta of heterosexual men who wanted to seize power for themselves in a totalitarian regime, using some warped trappings of Christian religion as propaganda. They blamed the pre-Gilead culture of the United States, which they perceived as sinful, for the ongoing fertility crisis.
Beginning with a staged attack that killed the President and most of Congress, the Sons of Jacob launched a revolution and suspended the Constitution of the United States under the pretext of restoring order. They were quickly able to take away women's rights, largely attributed to financial records being stored electronically and labelled by sex. The new regime, the Republic of Gilead, moved quickly to consolidate its power and reorganize society along a new militarized, hierarchical regime of Old Testament-inspired social and religious fanaticism among its newly created social classes.